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Dodatkowe źródła | kodekswalkizrakiem.pl

Dodatkowe źródła

Poniżej zamieszczono kluczowe pozycje piśmiennictwa do wykorzystania jako źródło szczegółowych informacji dotyczących poszczególnych części powyższego uzasadnienia zaleceń zawartych w zaktualizowanym „Europejskim kodeksie walki z chorobami nowotworowymi”. Przedstawiono je osobno dla każdego z wyżej opisywanych zagadnień.

 

Wprowadzenie

  • Boyle P, d’Onofrio A, Maisonneuve P et al. Measuring progress against cancer in Europe. Has the 15% decline targeted for 2000 come about? Ann Oncol 2003; 14: In press.
  • Boyle P, Smans M. Cancer Mortality Atlas of European Union and European Economic Area Member States, 1993-1997. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2003.
  • Doll R, Peto R. The Causes of Cancer. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 1982.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2000: Cancer Incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide, Version 1.0. IARC CancerBases No. 5. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2001.
  • LaVecchia C, Negri E, Levi F et al. Cancer mortality in Europe: effects of age, cohort of birth and period of death. Eur J Cancer 1998; 34: 118-141.
  • Levi F, Lucchini F, Negri E et al. Cancer mortality in Europe, 1990-1994, and an overview of trends from 1955 to 1994. Eur J Cancer 1999; 35: 1477-1516.
  • Levi F, Lucchini F, Boyle P et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in Europe, 1988-92. J Epi Bio 1998; 3 Suppl.
  • Pisani P. Avoidable cancer in Europe: estimating etiologic fractions. Final report to the European Commission, Contract No. 96-200504. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2000.
  • Quinn MJ, d’Onofrio A, M?ller B et al. Cancer mortality trends in the EU and acceeding states, 2000 to 2015. Ann Oncol 2003; 14: In press. 

 

Nie pal; jeśli już palisz, przestań. Jeśli nie potrafisz przestać, nie pal przy niepalących.

  • Boyle P, Gray N, Zatonski W et al. (eds). Tobacco: Science and Public Health. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press (to appear 2003).
  • Peto R, Darby S, Deo H et al. Smoking, smoking cessation and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: combination of national statistics with two case-control studies. BMJ 2000; 321: 323-329.
  • Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K et al. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years’ observation on male British doctors. BMJ 1994; 309: 901-911.
  • IARC. Tobacco smoking and involuntary smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 83. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2003.
  • Nicolaides-Bouman A, Wald N, Forey B, Lee P. International Smoking Statistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 1993.
  • Peto R, Lopez AL, Boreman J et al. Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics. Lancet 1992; 339: 1268-1278.
  • Peto R, Lopez AL, Boreman J et al. Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2000. Oxford, UK: Oxford Medical Publications 1994.
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. The health benefits of smoking cessation. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. DHHS Publication No. (CDC) 90-8416, 1990.
  • US Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: lung cancer and other disorders. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA/600/6-90/006F, December 1992. 

2.  Wystrzegaj się otyłości.

3. Bądź codziennie aktywny ruchowo, uprawiaj ćwiczenia fizyczne.

  • Bergstrom A, Pisani P, Tenet V et al. Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. Int J Cancer 2001; 91: 421-430.
  • Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S et al. A pooled analysis of thyroid cancer studies. V. Anthropometric factors. Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11: 137-144.
  • IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention; Weight Control and Physical Activity, vol 6. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2002.
  • Murphy TK, Calle EE, Rodriguez C et al. Body mass index and colon cancer mortality in a large prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 847-854.
  • van den Brandt PA, Speigelman D, Yaun S-S et al. Pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies on height, weight and breast cancer risk. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152: 514-527.
  • Willett WC, Dietz WH, Colditz GA. Guidelines for healthy weight. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 427-434.
  • Zatonski WA, Lowenfels AB, Boyle P et al. Epidemiologic aspects of gallbladder cancer: a case-control study of the SEARCH Program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 1132-1138. 

 

4. Spożywaj więcej różnych warzyw i owoców: jedz co najmniej 5 porcji dziennie. Ogranicz spożycie produktów zawierających tłuszcze zwierzęce.

  • American Academy of Sciences. Nutrition and Cancer. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences 1982.
  • Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 1975; 15: 617-631.
  • Augustin L, Dal Maso L, La Vecchia C et al. Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, and breast cancer risk: a case-control study. Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 1533-1538.
  • Bingham SA, Day NE, Luben R et al. Dietary fibre in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study. Lancet 2003; 361: 1496-1501.
  • Jacobs DR Jr, Marquart L, Slavin J, Kushi LH. Whole-grain intake and cancer: an expanded review and meta-analysis. Nutr Cancer 1998; 30: 85-96.
  • Key TJ, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC. The effect of diet on risk of cancer. Lancet 2002; 360: 861-868.
  • Mai V, Flood A, Peters U et al. Dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer in the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) follow-up cohort. Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32: 234-239.
  • Michels KB, Edward G, Joshipura KJ et al. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 1740-1752.
  • Peters U, Sinha R, Chatterjee N et al. Dietary fibre and colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection programme. Lancet 2003; 361: 1491-1495.
  • Tannenbaum A. Relationship of body weight to cancer incidence. Arch Pathol 1940; 30: 508-517.
  • Trichopoulou A, Lagiou P, Kuper H, Trichopoulos D. Cancer and Mediterranean dietary traditions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2000; 9: 869-873.
  • Willett WC. Nutritional Epidemiology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 1990.
  • World Cancer Research Fund. Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington DC: American Institute for Cancer Research 1997.
  • Zatonski W, Boyle P. Health transformations in Poland after 1988. J Epi Biostat 1996; 1: 123-126. 

 

5. Jeśli pijesz alkohol – piwo, wino lub napoje wysokoprocentowe – ogranicz jego spożycie: mężczyźni do dwóch porcji dziennie, kobiety do jednej porcji dziennie.

  • Bosetti C, Franceschi S, Levi F et al. Smoking and drinking cessation and the risk of oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 689-691.
  • Hankinson S, Hunter D. Breast cancer. In Adami HO, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D (eds): Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press 2002; 301-339.
  • IARC. Alcohol Drinking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 44. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 1988.
  • Little JF, Hepper PG, Dornan JC. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and fetal startle behaviour. Physiol Behav 2002; 76: 691-694.
  • Potter JD, Hunter D. Colorectal cancer. In Adami HO, Hunter D, Trichopoulos D (eds): Textbook of Cancer Epidemiology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press 2002; 188-211.
  • Skog OJ. Alcohol consumption and overall accident mortality in 14 European countries. Addiction 2001; 96 (Suppl): S35-S47.
  • Thun MJ, Peto R, Lopez AD et al. Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1705-1714.
  • WHO. Global status report on alcohol. WHO Publication No. WHO/HSC/SAB/99.11. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization 1999. 

 

6. Należy unikać nadmiernej ekspozycji na promienie słoneczne. Szczególnie należy chronić dzieci i młodzież. Osoby mające skłonność do oparzeń słonecznych powinny przez całe życie stosować środki chroniące przed słońcem.

  • Autier P, Dore J-F, Schifflers E et al. Melanoma and use of sunscreens: an EORTC case-control study in Germany, Belgium and France. Int J Cancer 1995; 61: 749-755.
  • Autier P, Dore JF, Cattaruzza MS et al. Sunscreen use, wearing clothes, and number of nevi in 6- to 7-year-old European children. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Cooperative Group. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90: 1873-1880.
  • Autier P, Dore JF, Reis AC et al. Sunscreen use and intentional exposure to ultraviolet A and B radiation: a double blind randomized trial using personal dosimeters. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 1243-1248.
  • Bastiaens M, ter Huurne J, Gruis N et al. The melanocortin-1-receptor gene is the major freckle gene. Hum Mol Genet 2001; 10: 1701-1708.
  • Bataille V, Bishop JA, Sasieni P et al. Risk of cutaneous melanoma in relation to the numbers, types and sites of naevi: a case-control study. Br J Cancer 1996; 73: 1605-1611.
  • Glover MT, Deeks JJ, Raftery MJ et al. Immunosuppression and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in renal transplant recipients. Lancet 1997; 349: 398.
  • Kricker A, Armstrong BK, English DR et al. Does intermittent sun exposure cause basal cell carcinoma? A case-control study in Western Australia. Int J Cancer 1995; 60: 489-494.
  • McGregor B, Pfitzner J, Zhu G et al. Genetic and environmental contribution to size, color, shape and other characteristics of melanocytic naevi in a sample of adolescent twins. Genet Epidemiol 1999; 16: 40-53.
  • Newton JA, Bataille V, Griffiths K et al. How common is the atypical mole syndrome phenotype in apparently sporadic melanoma? J Am Acad Dermatol 1993; 29: 989-996.
  • Osterlind A, Tucker MA, Hou-Jensen K et al. The Danish case-control study of cutaneous malignant melanoma. I. Importance of host factors. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 200-206.
  • Osterlind A, Tucker MA, Stone BJ et al. The Danish case-control study of cutaneous malignant melanoma. II. Importance of UV-light exposure. Int J Cancer 1988; 42: 319-324.
  • Setlow RB, Grist E, Thompson K et al. Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 6666-6670.
  • Valverde P, Healy E, Jackson I et al. Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Nat Genet 1995; 11: 328-330.
  • Wachsmuth RC, Gaut RM, Barrett JH et al. Heritability and gene-environment interactions for melanocytic nevus density examined in a U.K. adolescent twin study. J Invest Dermatol 2001; 117: 348-352. 

               

7. Przestrzegaj ściśle przepisów dotyczących ochrony przed narażeniem na znane substancje rakotwórcze. Stosuj się zawsze do instrukcji postępowania z substancjami rakotwórczymi. Przestrzegaj zaleceń krajowych ośrodków ochrony radiologicznej. Zawodowe i środowiskowe przyczyny nowotworów

  • Boffetta P, Saracci R, Kogevinas M et al. Occupational carcinogens. In Stellman JM, (ed): Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 2nd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO, 1998; 4-18.
  • Hayes RB. The carcinogenicity of metals in humans. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 371-385.
  • IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Some Drinking Water Disinfectants and Contaminants, Including Arsenic, vol 84. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2003.
  • Katsouyanni K, Pershagen G. Ambient air pollution exposure and cancer. Cancer Causes Control 1997; 8: 284-291.
  • Kauppinen T, Toikkanen J, Pedersen D et al. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union. Occup Environ Med 2000; 57: 10-18.
  • Kogevinas M, Kauppinen T, Boffetta P, Saracci R (eds): Estimation of the Burden of Occupational Cancer in Europe. Final Report to the European Commission of a Project Funded by the Programme „Europe Against Cancer”. Barcelona, Spain: IMIM, 1998.
  • Peto J, Hodgson JT, Matthews FE, Jones JR. Continuing increase in mesothelioma mortality in Britain. Lancet 1995; 345: 535-539.
  • Steenland K, Burnett C, Lalich N et al. Dying for work: the magnitude of US mortality from selected causes of death associated with occupation. Am J Ind Med 2003; 43: 461-482.

 

         Promieniowanie jonizujące

  • IARC Ionizing radiation, part 1: X- and gamma (gamma)-radiation, and neutrons. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 75. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2000.
  • IARC Ionizing radiation, part 2: Some internally deposited radionuclides. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 78. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2001.
  • ICRP. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 60; Annals of the ICRP, vol 21). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press 1991.
  • National Academy of Sciences (BEIR V). Health effects of exposures to low levels of ionising radiation. Washington DC: National Academy
    Press 1990.
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionising radiation, vol I and II (United Nations Sales Publications E.00.IX.3 and E.00.IX.4). New York, NY: United Nations 2000.Radon
  • Darby S, Hill D, Doll R. Radon: a likely carcinogen at all exposures. Ann Oncol 2001; 12: 1341-1351.
  • IARC. Man-made mineral fibres and radon. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 43. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 1988.
  • IARC. Ionizing radiation, part 2. Some internally deposited radionuclides. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol 78. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2001.
  • National Research Council. Committee on Health Risks of Exposure to Radon: BEIR VI. Health Effects of Exposure to Radon. Washington DC: National Academy Press 1999.
  • UK Childhood Cancer Study Investigators. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study of exposure to domestic sources of ionising radiation: 1: radon gas. Br J Cancer 2002, 86: 1721-1726.
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Vol I: Sources. New York, NY: United Nations 2000. 

         Promieniowanie kosmiczne

  • Boice JD Jr, Blettner M, Auvinen A. Epidemiologic studies of pilots and aircrew. Health Phys 2000; 79: 576-584. European Commission. Council Directive 96/29 Euratom. Off J Europ Communities 1996; 39: 1-18.
  • European Radiation Dosimetry Group. McAuley IR, Bartlett DT, Dietz G et al. (eds). Exposure of Aircrew to Cosmic Radiation. 11. EURADOS Report 1996-01. European Commission Report Radiation Protection 85.
  • Gundestrup M, Storm HH. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia and other cancers in commercial jet cockpit crew: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 1999; 354: 2029-2031.
  • Pukkala E, Aspholm R, Auvinen A et al. Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study. BMJ 2002; 325: 567.
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation�Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. New York, NY: United Nations 2000.
  • Zeeb H, Blettner M, Hammer GP, Langner I. Cohort mortality study of German cockpit crew, 1960-1997. Epidemiology 2002; 13: 693-699. 

 
         Radioaktywny jod a rak tarczycy

  • Dickman P, Holm L-E, Lundell G et al. Thyroid cancer risk after thyroid examination with 131I: a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 2003; In press.
  • Franklyn J, Maisonneuve P, Sheppard M et al. Cancer incidence and mortality after radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 1999; 353: 2111-2115.
  • Ivanov VK, Tsyb AF, Petrov AV et al. Thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys 2002; 41: 195-198.
  • Kazakov VS, Demidchik EP, Astakhova LN. Thyroid cancer after Chernobyl. Nature 1992; 359: 21.
  • Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE et al. Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies. Radiat Res 1995; 141: 259-277.
  • Ron E, Doody M, Becker D et al. Cancer mortality following treatment for adult hyperthyroidism. J Am Med Assoc 1998; 280: 347-355.
  • United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. New York, NY: United Nations 2000.Pracownicy zakładów energii jądrowej i populacje zamieszkujące w pobliżu obiektów nuklearnych
  • Ashmore JP, Krewski D, Zielinski JM et al. First analysis of mortality and occupational radiation exposure based on the National Dose Registry of Canada. Am J Epidemiol 1998; 148: 564-574.
  • Black RJ, Sharp L, Harkness EF, McKinney PA. Leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: incidence in children and young adults resident in the Dounreay area of Caithness, Scotland in 1968-91. J Epidemiol Community Health 1994; 48: 232-236.
  • Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE). Second Report. Investigation of the possible increased incidence of leukaemia in young people near the Dounreay nuclear establishment, Caithness, Scotland (Chairman: Professor M. Bobrow). London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office 1988.
  • Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE). Fourth Report. The incidence of cancer and leukaemia in young people in the vicinity of the Sellafield site, West Cumbria: further studies and an update of the situation since the publication of the report of the Black Advisory Group in 1984 (Chairman: Professor B. A. Bridges). Wetherby, UK: Department of Health 1996.
  • Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE). Seventh Report. Parents occupationally exposed to radiation prior to the conception of their children. A review of the evidence concerning the incidence of cancer in their children (Chairman: Professor B. A. Bridges OBE). London, UK: National Radiological Protection Board 2002.
  • Doll R, Evans HJ, Darby SC. Paternal exposure not to blame. Nature 1994; 367: 678-680.
  • Gilbert ES, Koshurnikova NA, Sokolnikov M et al. Liver cancers in Mayak workers. Radiat Res 2000; 154: 246-252.
  • Hattchouel JM, Laplanche A, Hill C. Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 651-653.
  • Kinlen LJ. Epidemiological evidence for an infective basis in childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 1995; 71: 1-5.
  • Kossenko MM, Degteva MO, Vyushkova OV et al. Issues in the comparison of risk estimates for the population in the Techa River region and atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res 1997; 148: 54-63.
  • Muirhead CR. Childhood cancer and nuclear installations: a review. Nucl Energy 1998; 37: 371-379.

 

         Linie energetyczne

  • Ahlbom A, Day N, Feychting M et al. A pooled analysis of magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. Br J Cancer 2000; 83: 692-698.
  • Verkasalo P, Pukkala E, Hongisto MY et al. Risk of cancer among Finnish children living close to power lines. BMJ 1993; 307: 895-899.
  • Verkasalo P, Pukkala E, Kaprio J et al. Magnetic fields of high voltage power lines and risk of cancer risk in Finnish adults: nationwide cohort study. BMJ 1996; 313: 1047-1051.Telefony komórkowe
  • Dreyer NA, Loughlin JE, Rothman KJ. Cause-specific mortality in cellular telephone users. JAMA 1999; 282: 1814-1816.
  • Inskip PD, Tarone RE, Hatch EE et al. Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. N Engl J Med 2001; 344: 79-86.
  • Johansen C, Boice JD Jr, Mclaughlin JK, Olsen JH. Cellular telephones and cancer�a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93: 203-207.
  • Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Homson S et al. Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. JAMA 2000; 284: 300-317.
  • Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Shore RE et al. Handheld cellular telephones and risk of acoustic neuroma. Neurology 2002; 58: 1304-1306.
  • Rothman KJ, Loughlin JE, Funch DP, Dreyer N. Overall mortality of cellular telephone customers. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 303-305. 

 

8. Kobiety po 25. roku życia powinny uczestniczyć w badaniach przesiewowych w kierunku raka szyjki macicy. Badania te należy prowadzić w ramach programów podlegających procedurom kontroli jakości zgodnym z „Europejskimi wytycznymi kontroli jakości badań przesiewowych w kierunku raka szyjki macicy”.

  • Cuzick J, Szarewski A, Terry G et al. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening. Lancet 1995; 345: 1533-1536.
  • Coleman D, Day N, Douglas G et al. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. Europe Against Cancer programme. Eur J Cancer 1993; 29A (Suppl 4): S1-S38.
  • Hakama M, Magnus K, Petterson F et al. Effect of organised screening on the risk of cervix cancer in the Nordic Countries. In Miller AB, Chamberlain J, Day NE et al. (eds): Cancer Screening. Geneva, Switzerland: International Union Against Cancer 1991.
  • IARC Working Group on Cervical Cancer Screening. Summary chapter. In Hakama M, Miller AB, Day NE (eds): Screening for Cancer of the Uterine Cervix. IARC Scientific Publications No. 76. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 1986; 133-142.
  • Koss LG. The Papanicolaou test for cervical cancer detection. A triumph and a tragedy. JAMA 1989; 261: 737-743.
  • Meijer CJ, van den Brulle AJ, Snijders PJ et al. In Munoz N, Bosch FX, Shah KV, Meheus A (eds): The Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer and Human Papillomavirus. IARC Scientific Publication No. 119. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 1992; 271-281.
  • NIH. Cervical cancer. NIH Consensus Statement, April 1-3. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health 1996; 43: 1-26.
  • Sasieni PD, Cuzick J, Lynch-Farmery E. Estimating the efficacy of screening by auditing smear histories of women with and without cervical cancer. The National Co-ordinating Network for Cervical Screening Working Group. Br J Cancer 1996; 73: 1001-1005.
  • Wilson J, Jungner G. Principles and Practice of Screening for Disease. WHO Public Health Paper 34. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization 1968. 

 

9. Kobiety po 50. roku życia powinny uczestniczyć w badaniach przesiewowych w kierunku raka piersi. Badania te należy prowadzić w ramach programów zdrowotnych podlegających procedurom kontroli jakości zgodnym z „Europejskimi wytycznymi kontroli jakości mammograficznych badań przesiewowych”.

  • Chen HH, Duffy SW, Tabar L, Day NE. Markov chain models for progression of breast cancer. Part I: tumour attributes and the pre-clinical screen-detectable phase. J Epi Bio 1997; 2: 25-36.
  • Perry N, Broeders M, de Wolf C, Tornberg S. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Mammography Screening, 3rd edition. Luxembourg: European Commission 2001.
  • Forrest P. Breast Cancer Screening. London, UK: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office 1986.
  • Hackshaw AK, Paul EA. Breast self-examination and death from breast cancer: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2003; 88: 1047-1053.
  • IARC. Breast cancer screening. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer 2002.
  • McCann J, Duffy S, Day NE. Predicted long-term mortality reduction associated with the second round of breast screening in East Anglia. Br J Cancer 2001; 84: 423-428.
  • Nystrom L, Andersson I, Bjurstam N et al. Long-term effects of mammography screening: updated overview of the Swedish randomised trials. Lancet 2002; 359: 909-919.
  • Swedish Cancer Society and the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare. Breast-cancer screening with mammography in women aged 40-49 years. Int J Cancer 1996; 68: 693-699.
  • Thomas DB, Gao DL, Self SG et al. Randomized trial of breast examination in Shanghai: methodology and preliminary results. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89: 355-365.
  • United States Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: recommendations and rationale. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137 (5 Part 1): 344-346.
  • Wald NJ, Chamberlain J, Hackshaw
    A et al. Report of the European Society of Mastology (EUSOMA) Breast Cancer Screening Evaluation Committee (1993). Breast 1993; 2: 209-216. 

 

10. Kobiety i mężczyźni po 50. roku życia powinni uczestniczyć w badaniach przesiewowych w kierunku raka jelita grubego. Badania te powinny być prowadzone ramach programów uwzględniających procedury kontroli jakości.

  • Colorectal Cancer Screening. Recommendation statement from the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. CMAJ 2001; 165: 206-207.
  • Detsky A. Screening for colon cancer�can we afford colonoscopy? N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 607-608.
  • Greegor DH. Diagnosis of large-bowel cancer in the asymptomatic patient. JAMA 1967; 201: 123-125.
  • Hardcastle JD, Chamberlain JO, Robinson MHE et al. Randomised controlled trial of faecal-occult-blood screening for colorectal cancer. Lancet 1996; 348: 1472-1477.
  • Kronberg O, Fenger C, Olsen J et al. Randomised study of screening for colorectal cancer with faecal-occult-blood test. Lancet 1996; 348: 1467-1471.
  • Lieberman DA, Harford WV, Ahnen et al. One-time screening for colorectal cancer with combined fecal occult-blood testing and examination of the distal colon. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 555-560.
  • Mandel J. Colon and rectal cancer. In Reintgen DS, Clark RA (eds): Cancer Screening. St Louis, MO: Mosby 1996; 55-96.
  • Mandel JS, Bond JH, Church TR et al. Reducing mortality from colorectal cancer by screening for fecal occult blood. N Engl J Med 1993; 328: 1365-1371.
  • Mandel JS, Church TR, Bond JH et al. The effect of fecal occult-blood screening on the incidence of colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1603-1607.
  • Morson BC. Gastrointestinal Pathology. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications 1979.
  • Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenbery CP et al. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality from colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992; 26: 653-657.
  • Towler B, Irwig L, Glasziou P et al. A systematic review of the effects of screening for colorectal cancer using the faecal occult blood test, Hemocult. BMJ 1998; 317: 559-565.
  • Winawer SJ. A quarter century of colorectal cancer screening: progress and prospects. J Clin Oncol 2001; 19 (18 Suppl): 6S-12S.
  • Winawer SJ, Fletcher RH, Miller L et al. Colorectal cancer screening: clinical guidelines and rationale. Gastroenterology 1997; 112: 594-642. 

 

11. Bierz udział w programach szczepień ochronnych przeciwko wirusowemu zapaleniu wątroby typu B.

  • Bosch FX, Ribes J, Borras J. Epidemiology of primary liver cancer. Semin Liver Dis 1999; 19: 271-285.
  • Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Munoz N et al. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J
    Clin Pathol 2002; 55: 244-265.
  • Brechot C, Jaffredo F, Lagorce D et al. Impact of HBV, HCV, and GBV-C/HGV on hepatocellular carcinoma in Europe: results of a European concerted action. J Hepatol 1998; 29: 173-183.
  • Brugha R, Starling M, Walt G. GAVI, the first steps: lessons for the Global Fund. Lancet 2002; 359: 435-438.
  • Hermine O, Lefrere F, Bronowicki JP et al. Regression of splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes after treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 89-94.
  • Koutsky LA, Ault KA, Wheeler CM et al. A controlled trial of a human papillomavirus type 16 vaccine. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 1645-1651.
  • La Vecchia C, Lucchini F, Franceschi S et al. Trends in mortality from primary liver cancer in Europe. Eur J Cancer 2000; 36: 909-915.
  • Pisani P, Parkin DM, Munoz N, Ferlay J. Cancer and infection: estimates of the attributable fraction in 1990. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6: 387-400.
  • Villa L, Costa R, Petta C et al. A dose-ranging safety and immunogenicity study of a quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) L1 VLP vaccine in women. Proceedings of the 20th International Papillomavirus Conference, Paris 4-9 October 2002; 97 (Abstr O99). 

Inne rozważane aspekty
Hormony egzogenne

  • Bosetti C, Negri E, Franceschi S et al. Relationship between postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and ovarian cancer. JAMA 2001; 285: 3089.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 53 297 women with breast cancer and 100 239 women without breast cancer from 54 epidemiological studies. Lancet 1996; 347: 1713-1727.
  • Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women with breast cancer and 108,411 women without breast cancer. Lancet 1997; 350: 1047-1059.
  • Fernandez E, La Vecchia C, Balducci A et al. Oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2001; 84: 722-727.
  • Herbert-Croteau N. A meta-analysis of hormone replacement therapy and colon cancer among women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7: 653-659.
  • Hulley S, Furberg C, Barrett-Connor E et al. Noncardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II). JAMA 2002; 288: 58-66.
  • La Vecchia C, Altieri A, Franceschi S, Tavani A. Oral contraceptives and cancer: an update. Drug Saf 2001; 24: 741-754.
  • Magnusson C, Persson I, Adami HO. More about: effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin. J Natl Cancer Inst 2000; 92: 1183-1184.
  • Moreno V, Bosch FX, Mu?oz N et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with human papilloma virus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control study. Lancet 2002; 359: 1085-192.
  • Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 321-333. 

        Badania przesiewowe w kierunku innych nowotworów złośliwych

  • Bartsch G, Horninger W, Klocker H et al. Prostate cancer mortality after introduction of prostate-specific antigen mass screening in the Federal State of Tyrol, Austria. Urology 2001; 58: 417-424.
  • Boyle P. Screening for prostate cancer: have you had your cholesterol measured? BJU Int 2003; In press.
  • Chamberlain J, Moss S (eds). Evaluation of cancer screening. Berlin, Germany: Springer 1996.
  • Collins MM, Barry MJ. Controversies in prostate cancer screening. Analogies to the early lung cancer screening debate. JAMA 1996; 276: 1976-1979.
  • Gould MK, Maclean CC, Kuschner WG et al. Accuracy of positron emission tomography for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions: a metaanalysis. JAMA 2001; 285: 914-924.
  • Henschke CI, McCauley DI, Yankelevitz DF et al. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet 1999; 354: 99-105.
  • Henschke CI, Naidich DP, Yankelevitz DF et al. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: initial findings on repeat screening. Cancer 2001; 92: 153-159.
  • IARC Working Group on evaluation of cervical cancer screening programmes. Screening for squamous cervical cancer: duration of low risk after negative results of cervical cytology and its implications for screening policies. BMJ 1986; 293: 659-664.
  • Kaneko M, Kusumoto M, Kobayashi T et al. Computed tomography screening for lung carcinoma in Japan. Cancer 2000; 89: 2485-2488.
  • Parkes C, Wald NJ, Murphy P et al. Prospective observational study to assess value of prostate specific antigen as screening test for prostate cancer. BMJ 1995; 311: 1340-1343.
  • Reintgen DS, Clark RA (eds). Cancer Screening. St Louis, MO: Mosby 1996.
  • Scholefield JH, Moss SM. Faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer. J Med Screen 2002; 9: 54-55.
  • Screening brief: cervical cancer. J Med Screen 1994; 1: 255.
  • Screening brief: colorectal cancer. J Med Screen 1997; 4: 54.
  • Screening brief: prostate cancer. J Med Screen 1996; 3: 164.
  • Vainio H, Bianchini F. Breast Cancer Screening. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, vol 7. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press 2001.
  • Wald NJ. Guidance on terminology. J Med Screen 1994; 1: 76. 

 


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